Table of Contents

    • ARTILLERY: 1960-2000
    • Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)
    • TANKS:2400-2800
    • Armour
    • Air Defence Formations
    • Pakistan Army Aviation Corps
  • Pakistan Army Corps & Divisions
    • I Corps, Mangla.
    • II Corps, Multan. 
    • IV Corps, Lahore
    • X Corps, Rawalpindi.
    • XI Corps, Peshawar.
    • XII Corps, Quetta. 
    • XXX Corps, Gujranwala, 
    • XXXI Corps, Bahawalpur.
    • Air Defence Command, Rawalpindi
    • Strategic Forces Command, Rawalpindi
    • 5 COMMANDS
    • AWACS
    • Pakistan Air Force Bases & Squadrons


  • 19 Infantry Divisions ?
  • 2 Mechanised Divisions
  • 2 Armoured Divisions
  • 2 Artillery Divisions
  • 51 Armoured Regiments


  • ARTILLERY: 1960-2000
    • Self Propelled Artillery: 420-450
      • 155 mm M109A2, A5 and L: 380-390
      • 203 mm M110: 40-60
    • Towed Artillery: 1539. 105 mm: 413. 122mm: 579. 155 mm:521. 203 mm 26
      • 105 mm M101: 300
      • 105 mm Mod56: 113
      • 122 mm Type 86: 179
      • 122mm Type 54-1: 400
      • 155 mm Panter: 72
      • 155 mm M198: 389
      • 155 mm. M114: 60
      • 203 mm. M115: 26
  • Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)
    • A-100 : 50-65
  • TANKS:2400-2800
    • VT-4 (Upgraded Al-Khalid/MBT-2000)3rd Gen: 2-4 delivered 176-240 planned/ordered(?)
    • Al-Zarrar/Type-59, based on T-54A. 2nd Gen.:710/1100
    • T-54/55. 2nd Gen: 50
    • Type-69 2nd Gen:. 2nd Gen: 400
    • Type-85 IIAP .2nd Gen: 270
    • Al-Khalid. Based on MBT-2000/Type-90-IIM. 3rd Gen: 350
    • Al-Khalid-I. 3rd Gen: 20
    • T-80UD. 3rd Gen: 320


  • 1 Armoured Division = 246/176 tanks
    • 2 Armoured Brigades = Total of 246/176 Tanks.
      • Each armoured brigade has 3/2 Tank regiments 
        • Each regiment = 41-44 tanks in 3/2 Squadrons. 1 tank used by CO and 2nd IC each. 
        • Each squadron = 13 tanks in 3 Troops
        • Each Troop = 3 Tanks
    • 1 Artillery Brigade = Total of 54-72 guns
      • Each artillery brigade has 2-3 Artillery Regiments
        • Each Regiment has 18-24 guns in 3 artillery batteries 
        • Each battery has 6-8 guns
    • 1 Infantry Brigade = Approx 2700-3000 soldiers on average.
      • 1 Mechanised Infantry Brigade = 3 battalions
        • Each battalion = 700-900 men in 3-5 Companies.
        • Each company=80-120 men in 3-4 platoons 
        • 10-15 sections with 10-20 men in each section.
    • Air Defence Brigade
      • Talha APC(M-113 copy) with RBS-70 SAM and Giraffe Radar in 2-3 Regiments
    • Engineers

Air Defence Formations

  • Air Defence Regiments: These are usually of three type, SAM, mixed (Anti-Air Artillery AAA guns and SAM) and Surveillance.

Each regiment has usually 3 batteries with 4-8 SAM launchers or AAA guns. Number of troops is usually 300-400. Battery commander is Captain or Major.

  • Air Defence Brigades: Attached to Armoured divisions.
  • Air Defence Divisions: Attached to Corps.
HQ-16AE/LY-8040,0.015-189 x 4LahoreIBIS-150 L-Band PESA 150km
HQ-7B/FM-90 SP0.7 -15,0.015-6x3S-Band AESA.25 km
SPADA-20002510x 2 sections (6 missiles/ launcher). 750 missilesRAC-3D. 60km
FIM-92 Stinger8,3.5350 missilesIR
FN-6 MANPAD5.5,3.8295 missilesIR
RBS-70 MANPAD. SP5,3140Laser

SP: Self Propelled

MANPAD: Man-portable air-defense systems 

Pakistan Army Aviation Corps

Pakistan Army operates a large variety of aircraft and helicopters, but the number of units is quite small. Most potent machine they have is Mi-35M3, they have only 5 of those. They have American AH-1F Cobras in good numbers, but most of them are old and need replacement. Their plans to buy 18 AH-1Z from USA and 30 T-129 from Turkey were junked due to American sanctions. They then tried to buy Chinese Z-10 and even tested it, but no progress has been made.

Table below lists only some of the more numerous aircraft operational as of now.

AH-1F Cobra48?31st, 33rd & 35th AAv Combat. 499 EME. MultanOld, from 1985 onwards
Mi-35M35. More planned4th Squadron of 202nd AAv Group, Quetta
Bell 412EP 2644th & 25th AAv Squadrons, Quetta. & moreDoor mounted machine gun
Mi-17H48Multiple AAv groups + ISIUnarmed
AH-1Z Cobra??Sanctioned?
SA-330L Puma45Unarmed
SA-315 and 316B18+132nd, 8th, & 9th Composite. 1st, 7th AAv, LahoreScouts+SAR
SA-33045Multiple unitsSAR, Transport
AW-13976th AAvSAR, Transport
Alouette-3, Lama25th8thSiachen supplies

AAv: Army aviation

Pakistan Army Aviation Squadrons

1st ‘The Pioneers’20/6/1956
2nd ‘ Above The Best’20/6/1956
VVIP Flight23/08/1963Merged with 13th Squad in Aug 2006
3rd ‘Daring Three’1/1/1964
4th ‘Gallants’26/06/1969
5th ‘FearlessFive’31/1/1971MI-17
6th Emergency Relief Cell‘Anytime, anywhere’29/6/1971AW-139, UH-1H
7th ‘Scorpions’1/6/1981Mi-17
8th ‘Chumik Saviours’14/5/1981L-19, MFI-17 Planes. Alouette-III
9th MFI-17,  Alouette-III
10th “Balochis’4/5/1981MFI-17
12th ‘Desert Reckoner’10/9/1988
13th ‘Mujahid’10/9/1988Y-12
21st Quick Reaction  ‘Jabir’14/8/1981Mi-17, Puma?Q
24th ‘Desert Hawks’24/8/1981Puma
25th ‘Azam-O-Laggan’16/8/1981Puma, Bell 412EP
27th ‘Al-Najam-Us-Saqib’14/8/1981Mi-8, MI-17
31st Combat “Panzer’12/3/1985AH-1F Cobra 
33rd Combat ‘Air Wolves’12/3/1985AH-1F Cobra 
35th Combat 14/8/2005AH-1F Cobra 
50th Border Security FOrce2002
199 EME Battalion ‘Pioneers’11/19594 companies for Flight line Ops, Technician training, Field Repair & Base Repair.
299 EME Battalion28/08/1969Mi-8, Alouette-III
399 EME  Battalion 1/8/1991
499 EME Battalion1/8/1991
599 EME Battalion ‘Optimists’5/3/1991
Central Aviation Spares Depot, Dhamial5/12/1963Formerly Central Ordnance Aviation Depot.
Ordnance Aviation Depot, Multan7/12/1982
1st Forward Area Arming Refuelling Company12/3/1985
2nd Forward Area Arming Refuelling Company20/4/1985
3rd Forward Area Arming Refuelling Company13/3/1985
301st,302nd & 303rd Fuel Storage Platoon1985
351st, 353nd, 353rd Field Supply Platoons3/1985
Pakistan Rangers3/7/1977
Frontier Corps NWFP Aviation Flight17/11/1981
Pakistan Rangers, Sindh20/8/1994
Accident Investigation Board17/7/1993
Army Aviation Cell Artillery Centre1/8/1994
1 Light Company Defence Service Guards3/2002
AAv Engineering School20/4/1969
Qasim AAv Base15/10/1962
AAv  School, Chakla1/1/1959
Combat Group15/2/1985
503rd Workshop EME29/7/1969
HQ AAv Command13/11/1988
Aviation Directorate3/7/1976

AAv: Army Aviation

Pakistan Army Corps & Divisions

  • I Corps, Mangla. Punjab Strike Corps Command 

AREAS: Chicken Neck in Jammu and border areas around it.

  • 6th Armoured Division (Gujranwala)

Uses Al-Zarrar (upgraded T-59) MBT

  • 7th Armoured Brigade, Gujranwala
  • 9th  Armoured Brigade, Kharian
  • 106th Air Defence Brigade
  • 314th Assault Engineers
  • 6th Armoured Artillery Brigade.
  • 6th Armoured Division Air Aviation Brigade(wartime)
  • 17th Infantry Division (Kharian)

Half mechanised?

  • 37th Mechanised Infantry Division (Kharian)
  • 11th Armoured Brigade (Either Independent or part of 6th Arm Div.
  • Artillery division or (I) Artillery Brigade ?
  • 8th (I) Armoured Brigade (allocated to 6th Div in war)
  • ?? (I) Infantry Brigade  (Partially mechanised??)
  • ?? (I) Air Defence Brigade
  • II Corps, Multan. Punjab Strike Corps Command
  • 1st Armoured Division (Multan)
    • T-80UD tanks
  • 14th Infantry Division (Okara)
  • 40th Infantry Division (Okara)

Half mechanised?

  •  13th (I) Armoured Brigade
  • 44th (I) Mech Brigade
  • ?? (I) Artillery Brigade
  • ?? (I) Infantry Brigade (Partially mechanised??)
  • ?? (I) Air Defence Brigade
  • Combat Aviation Group, Multan?? 4 squadrons with 25 AH-!F Cobra helicopter.
  • IV Corps, Lahore. Punjab Holding Corps Command
  • 2nd Artillery Division (Gujranwala)??
  • 10th Infantry Division (Lahore)
  • 11th Infantry Division (Lahore)
    • ?? Artillery Brigade
    • 21st Infantry Brigade
    • 52nd Infantry Brigade
    • 106th Infantry Brigade
  • 212nd (I) Infantry Brigade, Lahore. (Perhaps half mechanised)
  • 3rd (I) Armour Brigade
  • ?? (I) Artillery Brigade
  • V Corps, Karachi Sindh Command. (Eastern and Southern)
  • 16th Infantry Division (Pano Aqil)
  • 18th Infantry Division (Hyderabad)
  • 25th Mechanized Division (Malir)?? Corps reserve
  • 105th (I) Infantry Brigade
  • 31st  (I) Mechanised Brigade, Malir
  • 2nd (I) Armoured Brigade, Hyderabad + 1 more ??
  • ?? (I) Artillery Brigade
  • X Corps, Rawalpindi. Kashmir Command.(Attack role in north and POK)
  • Force Command Northern Areas (Gilgit)
    • 80th Infantry Brigade
    • 150th Infantry Brigade
    • 323rd Infantry Brigade
    • 62nd Infantry Brigade??
    • 61st Infantry Brigade
  • 12th Infantry Division (Murree)
    • 6 infantry brigades LoC
  • 19th Infantry/Mountain Division (Mangla)
    • 3 infantry brigades between Jhelum and Kel. Corps reserve
  • 23rd Infantry Division (Jhelum)
    • 4 infantry brigades between Kotli-Bhimber
  • Special Security Division /34th Infantry(?) (Chilas)
    • 9 Infantry battalions & 6 paramilitary wings =15000 troops. CPEC security
  • 111th (I) Infantry Brigade, Rawalpindi for VIP security & coups. Corps Reserve
    • 3 infantry battalions(6th Punjab, 11th Baloch, Scinde Rifles, 1st Battalion Azad Kashmir and 2nd Battalion Northern Light Infantry)
    • 2 light artillery regiments, 1 Air Defense Battery, SSG battalion and 1 armoured regiment. 
  • 8th (I) Armoured Brigade, Kharian
  • ?? (I) Artillery Brigade
  • XI Corps, Peshawar. Western Command. (NWFP, Balochistan.


Afghan border and reserve(?) for eastern oriented formations)

  • 7th Infantry Division (Peshawar)
  • 9th Infantry Division (Kohat)
  • ?? (I) Armoured Brigade (Theater reserve for X, I or XXX corps)
  • 1 special operations task force on rotation.
  • XII Corps, Quetta. Western Command.(West Sindh, Afghan Border and reserve(?) for eastern oriented formations)
  • 33rd Infantry Division (Quetta)
  • 41st Infantry Division (Quetta)
  • ?? (I) Infantry Brigade
  • ?? (I) Armoured Brigade
  • XXX Corps, Gujranwala, Punjab Holding Corps Command 

Area: Between Jhelum and Narowal,South of IV Corps boundary, Shakargarh bulge

  • 8th Infantry Division (Sialkot)
    • 3-4 Brigades
  • 15th Infantry Division (Sialkot)
    • 4 Brigades
  • 2nd (I) Armoured Brigade
  • ?? (I) Anti-Tank Brigade
  • 22nd (I) Artillery Brigade, Bhaipheru/Okara??
  • 54th (I) Brigade Armoured/Infantry??
  • XXXI Corps, Bahawalpur. Punjab Holding Corps Command
  • 26th/34th Mechanized Division (Bahawalpur). Corps reserve
  • 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur)
  • 101st (I) Infantry Brigade
  • 10th or 13th (I) Armoured Brigade
  • Air Defence Command, Rawalpindi
    • 3rd Air Defence Division (Sargodha)
    • 4th Air Defence Division (Malir)
    • 105th (I) Air Defence Brigade
  • Strategic Forces Command, Rawalpindi

12000-15000 personnel, controls around 200 surface to surface missiles.

Army. Air Force and Navy have their own Strategic force command and have administrative control but operational control is with National Command Authority.  Army controls most?? Nuclear missiles while the Air Force controls aircraft and air dropped bombs. It’s also responsible for air defence of nuclear storage sites. 

  • 21st Artillery Division (Pano Aqil)
  • 22nd Artillery Division (Sargodha)
  • 2nd Missile Group (Sargodha)
  • ?? Missile Group, Hyderabad?
  • Special Services Group (SSG) Brigades
  • 1st SSG (12 companies in 3 Battalions)
    • 1st Commando Battalion
      • Ayub Company
      • Liaqat Company
      • Kamal Company
      • Mitha Company
    • 2nd Commando Battalion
      • Ghazi Company
      • Tipu Company
      • Quaid Company
      • Bilal Company
    • 4th Commando Battalion
      • Shaheen Company
      • Jungju Company
      • Yaqub Company
      • Yusuf Company
  • 2nd SSG (4 Companies in 1 battalion)
    • 3rd Commando Battalion
      • Hamza Company
      • Ibrahim Company
      • Zakria Company
      • Easa Company


National Command Authority (NCA) was established in 2002 for policy formulation and to manage nuclear deployment. It’s composition is:

  • Prime Minister as Chairman. (Musharraf as ‘President’ was 1st Chairman).
  • Foreign Minister
  • Defence Minister
  • Interior Minister
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
  • Chief of Army Staff
  • Chief of Naval Staff
  • Chief of Air Staff.

Strategic Plans Division (SPD) is headed by a Director General from army and has officers from all three services. It’s responsibilities include:

  • Operation security of nuclear arsenal. Each nuclear site has a SPD security force in inner perimeter.
  • Vetting employees under Personnel Reliability Program and Human Reliability Program with assistance of ISI.
  • Development and management of nuclear capability and regular administrative control. 


Pakistan has a first use policy and has threatened the use of nuclear weapons even on its own territory to break advance of Indian ground forces. Some nuclear assets in use with Pakistani armed forces are of low-yield tactical use variety which align with this doctrine.


Hatf 170-100 5006, 0.56 m1500 kgSolid fuel. Derived from French  Dauphin or Eridan. Poor CEP
Hatf 2 Abdali180-200 250-4506.5, 0.56 m1750 kgCEP 150 m
Hatf 3 Ghaznavi290 7008.5, 0.8 m4650 kgSolid propellant. Chinese M-11 Copy.250 m CEP
Hatf 4 Shaheen 1 & 1A750 & 900 700 & 100012, 1 m9500 kg200 m CEP.
Hatf 5 Ghauri1250-150070015.9, 1.35 m15850 kg250 m CEP. Liquid fuel.Copy of N Korean No Dong 1
Hatf 6 Shaheen 21500-200070017.2. 1.4 m23600 kgCopy of Chinese M-18. 2 stages, solid fuel.
Hatf 7 Babur250-7005006.2, 0.52 m1500 kgTurbojet cruise missile.Reverse engineered Tomahawk,
Hatf 8 Ra’ad350-500?4.85, 0.5 mALCM, under development
Hatf 9 Nasr604006, 0.4 m1200 kgSub-kiloton warhead for tactical use against advancing enemy columns.Chinese WS-2 copy
F-16A/BSargodha, Jacobabad, Jamshoro
Mirage III/VMasroor, Sargodh, RafiqiObsolete



This bases houses Ghaznavi and Shaheen1, Shaheen 2 and perhaps Ghauri missiles There are multiple TEL garages and storage sites. Mushaf airbase with nuclear capable F-16s is 8 km from here.


Has TEL launcher area and munitions storage bunkers. Suspected to house Nasr whose range 60 km is equal to distance from border.


Located in Balochistan and 220 km from Indian border. Has two underground storage facilities. Suspected to house Shaheen 2.


 Includes a TEL area and probably houses Nasr, Ghaznavi or Shaheen 1.

  1. National Development Complex, Fatejung

Assembly area for Ghaznavi, Shaheen 1, Shaheen 2 and Babur.

  1. AKRO

Has underground storage and TEL garage complex. Houses Babur??


It houses nuclear capable but old Mirage-III and Mirage-V jets and has a underground weapons storage and command & Control facility.


It houses nuclear capable but old Mirage-III and Mirage-V jets. 


Modern F-16 Block 52



  • Air Force Strategic Command (AFSC), 
  • Islamabad Northern Air Command (NAC), 
  • Peshawar Central Air Command (CAC),
  • Lahore Southern Air Command (SAC), 
  • Karachi Air Defence Command (ADC), Rawalpindi



  1. F-16 A/B  Block 15 & C/D Block 52. 64(46+18). Multirole

 46 Bought in 1980 as Block-15, 18 in 2008. all upgraded to Block-52 

  1. JF-17 Block I and II.  98-120 in 5-6 Squadrons. Multirole. Block-III under development. 50 Block I and rest Block II.
  2. Mirage-III. 68. Interceptor.
  3. Mirage-V. 87. Ground attack. Both Mirage-III and V are upgraded under Retrofit of Strike Element (ROSE) program. 43 III & V bought from France in 1990 and 50 from Libya in 2004. 
  4. J-7P and J-7PG 140/181(127+54). Interceptor. Old with poor serviceability. Being replaced by JF-17. 


  1. SAAB 2000 Erieye : 4. Original 4, 3 damaged, 2 repaired and 1 replaced
  2. Shaanxi Y-8 (ZDK-03) : 4


  1. Dassault Falcon 20: 2


  1. Ilyushin-78: 4


  1. C-130. 16 including 6 old from Australia
  2. SAB-2000. 1 VIP duties.
  3. Y-12. 2
  4. CN-235. 3


  1. Hongdu JL-8/K-8P. 28-38. Advanced trainer.
  2. Cessna T-37. 30-39. Intermediate trainer.
  3. MFI-17 Mushshak.  120-149. Basic trainer.
  4. Chengdu J-7/FT-7. 7. Conversion trainer.
  5. Shenyang J-6/FT-6. 9. Jet trainer.


  1. Mi-17.  4
  2. AW-139
  3. Alouette III. 15

Pakistan Air Force Bases & Squadrons

  • Bholari AB.  41 Tactical Wing
    • 19th Squadron (Sherdils). F-16A&B.  (F-16 shotdown in Feb 2019 was most likely from this unit)
  • Korangi Creek, Karachi.
  • Training base with F-6. F-7 and Mirage
  • Masroor. 32 Tactical Attack Wing.
    • 4th Squadron (Karakoram Eagles). KE-03 AWACS
    • 7th Squadron (Bandits). Mirage 3EA and 3DP. Tactical Attack.
    • 8th Squadron (Haiders). Mirage 5PA2, 5PA3 and 5DD. Tactical Attack
    • 22nd Squadron (Ghazis). Mirage-3DP, 5EF, 3EL,3BE & BL. Conversion Unit.
    • 84th Squadron (Dolphins). AW-139, Mi-17SH
  • M.M. Alam AB, Mianwali,  37 Combat Training Wing

Training base

    • 1st Squadron (Rahbers). K-8P. Training
    • 18th Squadron (Sharp Shooters) F-7 and F-7P. Conversion unit.
    • 20th Squadron (Cheetahs). F7PG, FT-7PG. Conversion Unit
    • 86th Squadron. (Ababeel). Alouette-3. Search & Rescue.
    • Shooter Squadron. F-7, FT-7P
  • Minhas AB, Kamra. 33 Tactical Air Wing

Near Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra which manufactures JF-17 and overhauls F-7 and Mirages,

    • 3rd Squadron. Saab-2000 Erieye. 4 AWACS
    • 16th Squadron (Black Panthers. JF-17 and JF-17B. Multi role.
    • 1st Flight- Abad, Burraq and Shahpar UAV.
    • 87th Squadron (Dragonflies). Mi-17 and Alouette 3
  • Mushaf AB, Sargodha

Includes Airpower Center of Excellence (ACE) with Combat Commanders School (CCS) for Mirage, F-7, JF-17 and F-16

    • 9th Squadron (Griffins). F-16A,B Multi role
    • 24th Squadron (Blinders). Falcon-20. Electronic Warfare
    • 82nd Squadron (Stallions). AW-139
  • Nur Khan AB, Rawalpindi. 35 Composite Air Transport Wing
      • 6th Squadron (Antelopes) C-130B & E, L-100. Transport
      • 10th Squadron (Buffaloes). IL-78MP. Tankers
      • 12th Squadron. (Globe Trotters). F-27, Falcon 20, A301-304, G-IV. VIP & transport
      • 41st Squadron. PA-34, Y-13, Ce-172, EMB-500, VIP & Transport
      • 52nd Squadron (Markhors). CN-235M
  • Peshawar AB.  36 Tactical Wing
    • 17th Squadron (Tigers). F-7PG & FT-7PG. Interceptors
    • 26th Squadron (Black Spiders). JF-17. Multi Role
    • 81st Squadron (Kangaroos). Alouette 3. Search & Rescue.
  • Quetta AB.  31 Tactical Wing
      • 23rd Squadron (Talons). F-7PG & FT-7PG. Interceptors
      • 28th Squadron (Phoenix). JF-17 Multi role
      • 85th Squadron. Alouette 3, Search & Rescue
  • Rafiqui AB.  34 Tactical Wing
      • 14th Squadron (Tail Choppers). JF-17. Air superiority ??
      • 15th Squadron (Cobras). Mirage 3DA,3EA, 5DD,5DR & 5PA. Land attack.
      • 25th Squadron (Night Strike). Mirage 5EF, 3DP & 5DD. Land Attack
      • 27th Squadron (Zarrars).  Mirage 5EF, 3DP. Land Attack
      • 83rd Squadron (Kites). Alouette 3. Search & Rescue
  • Risalpur AB.  41 Tactical Wing

Hosts PAF’s Asghar Khan Academy with following Flying Training (FT) Wings:

  • Primary FT Wings:1st and 2nd Primary FT Squadrons. MFI-17
  • Basic FT Wing: 1st and 2nd Basic FT squadrons. T-37B, T-37C
  • Advanced Jet Training Wing: 1st AJT Squadron. K-8
  • College of FT with Flying Instructors School (T-37B), PAC College (Sf-25) and Sherdils Aerobatics (K-8)
  • 38th Multi-role wing. Shaheen Training Corps (S6T)
  • Shahbaz AB, JACOBABAD. 39 Tactical Wing
    • 2nd Squadron (Minhasians). Multi-role JF17.
    • 5nd Squadron (Falcons). Multi-role F-16C-52 and D-52
    • 11th Squadron (Arrows.) Multi-role F-16A and B
    • 88th Squadron. Search & Rescue AQ-139
  • Sharea Faisal. PNS Mehran. 40 Wing
      • 21st Squadron (Pegasus). C-130E and Saab-2000. Transport.



F-22P ZulfiquarFrigate. 3144 t4Zulfiqar, Shamsheer,  Saif & Aslat
Type-21 TariqFrigate. 3250 t3Tariq, Khaibar, Shahjahan.
Oliver Perry ClassFrigate 4200 t1Alamgir
Type 054APFrigate 4100 t??
Jinnah Frigate 2800 t??
YarmookCorvette 2300 t1 or 2Yarmook
AzmatMissile boat. 560 t2/4Azmat, Dehshat
JalalatMissile boat. 250 t2Jalalat, Shujaat
JurratMissile boat2Jurrat, Quwwat
MunsifMinehunter 536 t3Munsif, Mujahid, Muhafiz
MadadgarTanker 1600 t2Madadgar, Rasadgar
GwadarTanker 2000 t2Gwadar, Kalmat
FuqingReplenishment 15000 t1Nasr
MoawinReplenishment 17000 t1Moawin
Agosta 90BDiesel 2050 t3Khalid, Hamza, Saad
Agosta-70Diesel 17602Hashmat, Hurmat
CosmosMidget sub 110 t3-5

TABLE: Pakistani Naval Fleet


6 Battalions

  • 1st Marines, Joint Army-Marines Base, Sir Creek
  • 1st Creek Battalion, Sujawal
  • 2nd Marines, Qasim.
  • 3rd Marines, Gwadar.
  • 21st Air Defence. Ormara.
  • Marines Amphibious WIng. Qasim


  1. Challenges for Indian Air Force: 2032
  2. The Stinger missile and U.S. intervention in Afghanistan.
  3. Pakistan Army Aviation Special Report
  4. An introduction to Pakistan’s military
  5. Pakistan’s Evolving Nuclear Weapons Infrastructure
  7. Defence Primer. An Indian Military in Transformation?
  8. History of Pakistan Army Aviation 1947-2007
  9. Pakistan Airforce’s Spada 2000 Air Defense System (Medium Range SAM)


There’s been a lot of noise about what happened in Balakot on 26th Feb 2019 and on LoC on 27th Feb. There were lots of claims from both sides but nothing definite. Indian officials were tight lipped and issued only terse statements , while Pakistanis released one statement after another. Media reports from both sides were as usual quite trashy and more noise than substance. In all this noise, there were some recordings, witness statements and less publicised events which provide some hints about what actually happened. There is some new information  coming out almost every day and it’s a difficult task to do detailed fact checks and connect all the dots. Following is an attempt to find some answers based upon some of the facts which are seemingly true.  This part covers just the Balakot strikes on 26th Feb. If I have some time, I’ll write something about events of next day.

26th Feb. 2:55 am  : A Indian Air Force strike team consisting solely of  Mirage 2000 fighter jets attacked a JeM terrorist training camp in Balakot in Khyber Phaktunwa province across international border. There were reports of 2 other targets, Chakoti and Muzaffarabad in Pakistan being hit, but no confirmations from either side. But both sides are in agreement that Balakot was bombed.  

India announced the attacks later in the day via an official statement made by Vijay Gokhale, Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs

Pakistani Claims:

Pakistanis on the other hand made a number of mutually contradictory claims.

  1. “Pakistani National Security Committee strongly rejected Indian claim of targeting an alleged terrorist camp near Balakot and the claim of heavy casualties. Once again Indian government has resorted to a self-serving, reckless and fictitious claim,” 1* 2*
  2. Pakistan foreign minister Qureshi said “multi-dimensional intrusion” had been attempted by the Indian fighter jets early on Tuesday. “But the intervention by Pakistani jets forced them to return back within minutes,” he said. The minister dismissed the notion that Pakistan Air Force jets were late in responding to the Indian attack, saying the planes were “ready” and “air-borne”. 2*
  3. Director-general of Pakistan’s Inter Services Public Relations, Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor, said India had “attempted” to send its combat air patrols (CAPs) “first from the Lahore-Sialkot sector” and they were “challenged” by Pakistani CAP. “They tried to enter from Bahawalpur-Okara and were forced to go back,” he said. According to Ghafoor, “the third (Indian) CAP which was bigger in number made it from Muzaffarabad and they were challenged and were forced to return”. 2*
  4. Pakistani Army confirmed attack on Twitter with pictures of craters outside the terrorist training facility. They claimed that bombs missed target and damaged only one civilian who suffered a gash on his forehead and a few trees.  “Payload of hastily escaping Indian aircrafts fell in open.”

  5. This video shows house of a local “civilian” close to the terrorist camp. It is a bit odd as it shows a small crater about 25-30 meters downhill and narrator claims that the whole house has been severely damaged.

Actual Proofs:

Following are some videos and pictures which tell a different story.

  1. This video was uploaded on 8th March by a Pakistani media outlet. It shows a senior Pakistani army officer in a village meeting consoling family members of some (200) dead people. Some roughly translated lines below:

Whoever fights alongside rulers of land in name of jihad is fighting for jihad.

Yesterday 200 people died. It was written in their fate, not ours.

Your father is not dead, he is alive. We don’t call him dead,

So this Pakistani army man is definitely admitting that 200 or more “good jihadis” got killed in one go.

2. Indian government and armed forces have release very little information till now. Maybe it’ll change later as it did with Uri strikes. But as of now, one major statement made is that Indian intelligence had detected around 300 mobile phone signals in the terrorist camp. 4*

3. Following interview with some locals deflate official Pakistani claims

a. Access to whole area has been completely blocked off for outsiders as well as locals.

b. Pakistani authorities are prohibiting any information leaks. For this, they’ve blocked internet, enforced no go zones and are actively warning people against talking to anyone.

What Happened :

Following are my guesses based upon available information:

  1. IAF Mirage 2000s did attack atleast one target at Balakot. Other two possible targets were Chakoti and Muzaffarabad. Both are near to LoC in J&K
  2. Earlier reports said that terrorist camp was hit using “1000 kg bombs”. Later it was revealed to be Spice, which is actually a guidance kit for 2000, 1000 and 500 pound bombs in Indian inventory. I believe that it was Spice 1000 used for 1000 lbs (450 kg) bombs which can have 200 kgs of high explosives. A single 1000 kg bomb will have around 450 kgs of explosives which will blow off most of hill top. Considering that avoiding collateral damage was one major mission objective, it’s unlikely that 1000 kg bombs were used.
  3. According to local witness accounts, 4-5 bombs were dropped. It should be pretty obvious that these smart bombs usually don’t miss. Even if we believe story of that single injured civilian whose house was damaged, there are still 3-4 other bombs which found their mark. Their impact points have not been made public by Pakistan and access blocked off.
  4. There have been atleast 200 causalities including some terrorists, their trainers as well as regular Pakistani army. Pakistan is doing everything in it’s power to hide it. We’ll have to wait for more information to be released by Indian government to have a reasonably accurate number and actual impact.


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Name: Mushaf Airbase. IATA Code: BHW

Type: Major Pakistan Air Force base and nuclear weapons storage site.

Location: Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.

Coordinates: 32°02′34″N  72°40′43″E

Comments: PAF base Mushaf in Sargodha, Punjab is one of more important military establishments for multiple reasons:

  1. It is Central air command of PAF. It also houses Combat Commanders School which has Skybolts flying Dassault Mirage 111/5 and Dashings currently flying Chengdu F.7P. These can be seen parked out in open often.
  2. Number 9 and 19 Squadrons with F-16A/B Block 15. Unlike Mirage and F7 mentioned above, F-16s spend most of their time in hardened shelters.
  3. Number 24 Squadron flying Electronic Warfare aircraft based on French Dassault Falcon 20 airframe.
  4. A large number of Pakistani nuclear warheads and missiles like M-11 are stored here.
PAF Mushaf, 176 km from IB
PAF Airbase Mushaf in Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan. , 176 km from IB
PAF Mushaf, old aircraft
old aircraft, probably for display
PAF Mushaf, old aircraft on display
Old aircraft on display
PAF Mushaf, PAF Mushaf, Some transport aircraft parked in open
Some transport and quite a few fighter planes are almost always visible here
Same place, Snapshot from 2008
Same place, Snapshot from 2008
Supposedly residential colony near aircraft shelters
Supposedly residential colony near aircraft shelters
Reinforced aircraft shelters
Reinforced aircraft shelters
Aircraft shelters 1
Aircraft shelters 1
Looks like reinforced storage area
Looks like reinforced storage area
Possible SAM sites
Possible SAM sites
Air defence site
Air defence site
Some hangars and possibly underground storage
Some hangars and possibly underground storage
Heavily fortified bunkers. Possible weapon storage
Heavily fortified bunkers. Possible weapon storage
PAF Mushaf, Sargodha, runways
PAF Mushaf, Sargodha, runways
Radar site
Radar site. Administrative buildings are on lower left side. Bigger complex is not visible in this picture.
Possible SAM site (2)
Possible SAM site
Pakistani PM posing with some pilots in front of a F-16 parked outside it’s hardened shelter.
Another view of the shelters.

Index Post

Name: Lora Lai. City: Lora Lai. Airport name: Lora Lai. IATA code: LRG

Type: Airstrip and a few helipads.

Location: Balochistan, Pakistan

Coordinates: 30°21′50″N  68°36′54″E

Comments: This seems to be a pretty nondescript patch of land with only a few interesting features. Runway length is 900 m, which makes it pretty unusable for most combat aircraft. There seems to be no civilian infrastructure or civil flights. This is more like a big village or a very small town.

Only interesting thing that I was able to find that Lora Lai is one of primary training centers for Frontier Corps which is mostly involved in operations in Balochistan.

Lora Lai distance from IB 316km
Lora Lai distance from IB 316km
Lora Lai Pakistan
Lora Lai Pakistan
Lora Lai military hospital
Lora Lai military hospital
Lora Lai helipads
Lora Lai helipads
Lora Lai FC training center
Lora Lai FC training center
Lora Lai airstrip 900m
Lora Lai airstrip 900m
Lora Lai cantt
Lora Lai cantt

Index Post

Name: Chandhar Airbase

Type: Pakistan Air Force operated airfield, no civilian use.

Location: Punjab, Pakistan.

Coordinates: 32° 4’38.20″N   73°47’23.65″E

Occupants: PAF

Airstrip Length: 2.4 km

Comments: There is very little information about Chandhar airbase available in open sources. It’s about 77 km away from international border and seems to be military installation for use only during war time as a way of dispersing aircraft. There are some aircraft shelters, basic underground storage bunkers but  limited support infrastructure. It’s surrounded by farms on all sides and shows very little signs of activity, construction and changes.


Chandhar airbase, Distance from border 77 km

Chandhar airbase, Distance from border 77 km


Aircraft shelter 1

Aircraft shelters 1

Aircraft shelters 2

Aircraft shelters 2


Aircraft shelters 3

Aircraft shelters 3


Hardened bunker

Hardened bunker


Possible underground bunker and air defence site

Possible underground bunker and air defence site


Unidentified (possible AD site)

Unidentified (possible AD site)


Index Post